Dates Farming – Date palm is the oldest fruit tree grown in dry climate. The botanical name of this tree of Palmaceae family is Phoenix dactylifera. It is one of the oldest cultivated fruits of human civilization. Its origin is in the Persian Gulf. Its cultivation was prevalent in southern Iraq (Mesopotamia) 4000 years before Christ. According to the excavation of Mohenjodaro, its agriculture existed in India-Pakistan even before 2000 BC. Its commercial cultivation was first started in Iraq.
Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Egypt, Libya, Pakistan, Morocco, Tunisia, Sudan, United States of America and Spain are the main date producing countries of the world. For the first time in our country, between 1955 and 1962, some commercial varieties of date palms were imported from the Middle East countries, USA and Pakistan by Abohar, the regional center of Indian agriculture. Subsequently, the Indian Palm Research Project, Bikaner started suckers import of dates from 1978. At present, date palm is cultivated in Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner, and Jodhpur of Rajasthan.
The production and consumption of dates is highest in Arabia. It is considered a sacred fruit in the Quran. It is used all over the world during Ramadan. Contains many nutrients. It contains sugar, calcium, nicotinic acid, potassium and iron. Dates are a member of the palm family, and they grow only in tropical climatic conditions. By the way, they are also the most important crop of the desert region. But it can also be grown under general agriculture and now its industrial production has started in India too.
Best climate And Best soil for Dates Farming
For date palm cultivation sandy soil with proper drainage is required. It cannot be cultivated on hard land. It does not even require much water and its plants grow in strong sunlight. Its plants require 30 degree temperature to grow properly. Its fruits require a temperature of 45 degrees to ripen.
Cultivation requires sandy and friable soil. In such a situation, it is necessary to prepare the field before cultivation. For this, first of all, the soil of the field should be deeply plowed with turning plows. Leave the field open and then do two to three ploughings through the cultivator. By doing this the soil of the field will become friable. After this, level the field with a pat. This will not fill the field with water.
Type of dates
Sowing of Dates Farming
Planting of date palm plants is in progress. For this, prepare pits in the field at a distance of one meter. Put 25 to 30 kg of cow dung in these pits together with the soil. Now buy its plants from any government registered nursery and plant the plants in the prepared pits. The month of August is considered appropriate for transplanting its plants. About 70 date palm plants can be planted in one acre of field. The date palm plant is ready to give yield after 3 years of transplanting.
Date Palm Tree Plants Irrigation
Soil structure and water holding capacity greatly affect the need for irrigation. The need for irrigation in sandy land is much higher than that of loamy and smooth land. In order to get proper vegetative growth and fruits in date palm plants, the soil should have moisture up to 2 meters. It is necessary to give irrigation regularly through drip method in the plants prepared from tissue culture (tissue culture).
Dates Farming Crop Weed Control
For weed control in plants, weeding should be done at the appropriate time. Its plants should be pruned 5 to 6 in a year. Due to this the plant develops well. And the fruits look good too. Apart from this, after planting the plants, plow the remaining land between the plants from time to time. This will destroy the weeds growing in the ground.
Dates Farming Digging, Yield and Benefits
Date palm plant starts giving yield after 3 years of planting in the field. Its harvesting is done in three stages. The fruits should be fresh and ripe before harvesting. And in the second, harvesting is done when the fruits become soft. The third and last harvesting is done before the monsoon season after the fruits have dried. The fruits of the first two stages are used for making Pindkhajur. The dates obtained in the second stage can be made into dates by washing and drying them.
More income can be earned from date palm cultivation with less expenditure. On an average, 70 to 100 kg of dates are obtained from one plant after five years. About 70 saplings can be planted in one acre. From which more than 5000 kg of dates are obtained at a time. Whose wholesale price is found in the market from 25 to 40 rupees per kg. Due to which farmer brothers earn up to two lakhs at a time after five years.
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